Reproducible Builds

F-Droid supports reproducible builds of apps, so that anyone can run the build process again and reproduce the same APK as the original release. This means that F-Droid can verify that an app is 100% free software while still using the original developer’s APK signatures. F-Droid verifies reproducible builds using APK signature copying.

This concept is occasionally called “deterministic builds”. That is a much stricter standard: that means that the whole process runs with the same ordering each time. The most important thing is that anyone can run the process and end up with the exact same result.

How it is implemented as of now

Publishing signed binaries (APKs) from elsewhere (e.g. the upstream developer) is now possible after verifying that they match ones built using an fdroiddata recipe. Publishing only takes place if there is a proper match. This procedure is implemented as part of fdroid publish. The reproducibility check at the publishing step follows this logic:

Flow-chart for reproducibility check

Publish both (upstream) developer-signed and F-Droid-signed APKs

This approach allows publishing both APKs signed by the (upstream) developer and APKs signed by F-Droid. This enables us to ship updates for users who installed apps from other sources than F-Droid (e.g. Play Store), while also shipping updates for apps which were built and signed by F-Droid.

This requires extracting and adding (upstream) developer signatures to fdroiddata. These signatures are then later copied to the unsigned APK built from the fdroiddata recipe. We provide a command for easily extracting signatures from APKs:

$ cd /path/to/fdroiddata
$ fdroid signatures F-Droid.apk

Instead of local files, you can also supply HTTPS URLs to fdroid signatures.

The signature files are extracted to the app’s metadata directory, ready to be used with fdroid publish. A signature consists of 2-6 files: a v1 signature (manifest, signature file, and signature block file) and/or a v2/v3 signature (APK Signing Block and offset); if the APK was v1-signed with e.g. signflinger instead of apksigner there will also be a differences.json. The result of extracting one will resemble these file listings:

$ ls metadata/org.fdroid.fdroid/signatures/1000012/  # v1 signature only
$ ls metadata/                # v1 + v2/v3 signature

If you don’t want to install fdroidserver (or have an older version that doesn’t support extracting v2/v3 signatures yet) you can also use apksigcopier (available in e.g. Debian, Ubuntu, Arch Linux, NixOS) instead of fdroid signatures:

$ cd /path/to/fdroiddata
$ mkdir metadata/$APPID/signatures/$VERSIONCODE
$ apksigcopier extract --v1-only=auto Your.apk metadata/$APPID/signatures/$VERSIONCODE

Exclusively publishing (upstream) developer-signed APKs

For this approach, everything in the metadata should be the same as normal, with the addition of the Binaries: directive to specify where to get the binaries (APKs) from. In this case, F-Droid will never attempt to publish APKs signed by F-Droid. If fdroid publish can verify that the downloaded APK matches the one built from the fdroiddata recipe, the downloaded APK will be published. Otherwise F-Droid will skip publishing this version of the app.

Here is an example of a Binaries: directive:


See also: Build Metadata Reference - Binaries

Reproducible signatures

F-Droid verifies reproducible builds using the APK signature (a form of embedded signature), which requires copying the signature from a signed APK to an unsigned one and then checking if the latter verifies. The old v1 (JAR) signatures only cover the contents of the APK (e.g. ZIP metadata and ordering are irrelevant), but v2/v3 signatures cover all other bytes in the APK. Thus, the APKs must be completely identical before and after signing (apart from the signature) in order to verify correctly.

Copying the signature uses the same algorithm that apksigner uses when signing an APK. It is therefore important that (upstream) developers do the same when signing APKs, ideally by using apksigner.

Verification builds

Many people or organizations will be interested in reproducing builds to make sure that the builds match the original source and nothing has been modified. In that case, the resulting APKs are not published for installation. The Verification Server automates this process.

Reproducible Builds

Quite a few builds already verify with no extra effort since Java code is often compiled into the same bytecode by a wide range of Java versions. The Android SDK’s build-tools will create differences in the resulting XML, PNG, etc. files, but this is usually not a problem since the build.gradle includes the exact version of build-tools to use.

Anything built using the NDK will be much more sensitive. For example, even for builds that use the exact same version of the NDK (e.g. r13b) but on different platforms (e.g. macOS versus Ubuntu), the resulting binaries will have differences.

Additionally, we’ll have to look out for anything that includes timestamps or build paths, is sensitive to sort order, etc.

Google is also working towards reproducible builds of Android apps, so using recent versions of the Android SDK helps. One specific case is starting with Gradle Android Plugin v2.2.2, timestamps in the APK file’s ZIP metadata are automatically zeroed out.

Debugging Reproducible Builds

We recommend using diffoscope for easily finding the difference between the reference APK provided by the app developer and the APK that fdroidserver produced.

You can find the APK that fdroidserver produced either under e.g. fdroiddata/build/ (when running locally) or in the pipeline artifacts (when using GitLab CI). Adjust the path accordingly (e.g. for flavours other than prod).

Prioritising & fixing differences

HOWTO: diff & fix APKs for Reproducible Builds on the F-Droid wiki has detailed information on the various kinds of differences commonly encountered, which differences should usually be prioritised when debugging, and how to fix common issues.

It also shows how to use various specialised tools that may provide better results when diffoscope is not sufficient.

Reproducible APK tools

The scripts from reproducible-apk-tools (available in fdroiddata as a srclib) may help to make builds reproducible, e.g. by fixing newlines (CRLF vs LF) or making ZIP ordering deterministic, if removing the cause of the differences is not a realistic option. Depending on specifics, these scripts need to be used by upstream developers before signing their APKs, by the fdroiddata recipe, or both.

Originally created to inject non-determinism in build processes, disorderfs can also do the opposite: make reading from the filesystem deterministic. In some cases this can make e.g. resources.arsc reproducible. Here is an example from an existing recipe:

$ mv my.app_underlying
$ disorderfs --sort-dirents=yes --reverse-dirents=no my.app_underlying

Potential sources of unreproducible builds

There are various ways builds can be unreproducible. Some are relatively easy to avoid, others are hard to fix. We’ve tried to list some common sources below.

See also this GitLab issue.

Bug: Android Studio builds have non-deterministic ZIP ordering

Non-deterministic order of ZIP entries in APK makes builds not reproducible (may require a Google account to view).

NB: this should be fixed in Android Gradle plugin ( / 7.1.X and later.

When building APKs with Android Studio, the ordering of the ZIP entries in the APK can be different from that of APKs built by invoking gradle directly, affecting reproducibility; the ordering can be completely non-deterministic, even differing between different builds of the same source code.

A workaround for older versions is to invoke gradle directly (as during F-Droid or CI builds), bypassing Android Studio:

$ ./gradlew assembleRelease

NB: depending on your signing configuration, this may require signing the APK with apksigner afterwards, since signing is not performed by Android Studio in this case.

Bug: baseline.profm not deterministic

Non-stable assets/dexopt/baseline.profm (may require a Google account to view).

See also this write-up of workarounds.

Bug: coreLibraryDesugaring not deterministic

NB: this should be fixed in R8 ( 3.0.69 and later.

In some cases builds are not reproducible due to a bug in coreLibraryDesugaring (may require a Google account to view); this affected NewPipe.

Bug: line ending differences between Windows and Linux builds

Newline differences between building on Windows vs Linux make builds not reproducible (may require a Google account to view).

A workaround is to run on the unsigned APK with the “wrong” line endings to change them from LF to CRLF (or vice versa w/ --from-crlf) and zipalign it again afterwards.

Concurrency: reproducibility can depend on the number of CPUs/cores

This can affect .dex files (though that seems to be rare) or native code (e.g. Rust).

Using only 1 CPU/core as a workaround:

export CPUS_MAX=1
export CPUS=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN)
for (( c=$CPUS_MAX; c<$CPUS; c++ )) ; do echo 0 > /sys/devices/system/cpu/cpu$c/online; done

NB: this workaround affects the entire machine, so using it in a non-persistent virtual machine or container is recommended.

For Rust code, you can set codegen-units = 1.

See also this GitLab issue.

Embedded build paths

Embedded build paths are a source of reproducibility issues affecting apps built with e.g. Flutter, python-for-android, or using native code (e.g. Rust, C/C++, any kind of Apps completely written in Java and/or Kotlin tend to be unaffected.

Often, the easiest solution is to always use the same working directory when building; e.g. /builds/fdroid/fdroiddata/build/ (F-Droid CI), /home/vagrant/build/ (F-Droid build server), /tmp/build or create one to mirror the upstream used folders, e.g. for macOS /Users/runner.

NB: using a subdirectory of the world-writeable /tmp can have security implications (on multi-user systems).

If the SDK path ends up embedded in Flutter one can move the SDK to said path in the recipe and configure it with: flutter config --android-sdk <path> as setting ANDROID_SDK_ROOT might not be enough.

Embedded timestamps

Embedded timestamps are the most common source of reproducibility issues and are best avoided.

Native library stripping

It seems that the stripping of native libraries, e.g., can cause intermittent reproducibility issues. It is important to use the exact NDK version when rebuilding, e.g. r21e. Disabling stripping can sometimes help. Gradle seems to strip shared libraries by default, even the app is receiving the shared libraries via an AAR library. Here is how to disable it in Gradle:

android {
    packagingOptions {
        doNotStrip '**/*.so'

NDK build-id

On different build machines, different NDK paths and different paths to the project (and thus to its jni directory) are used. This leads to different paths to the source files in debug symbols, causing the linker to generate a different build-id, which is preserved after stripping.

One possible solution is passing --build-id=none to the linker which will disable build-id generation completely.

NDK hash style

LLVM passes different defaults to linkers on different platforms. After this commit was merged into the NDK, --hash-style=gnu will be used on Debian by default. To change the hash style, --hash-style=gnu can be passed to the linker.

platform Revisions

In 2014, the Android SDK tools were changed to stick two data elements in AndroidManifest.xml as part of the build process: platformBuildVersionName and platformBuildVersionCode. platformBuildVersionName includes the “revision” of the platform package built against (e.g. android-23), however different “revisions” of the same platform package cannot be installed in parallel. Plus the SDK tools do not support specifying the required revision as part of the build process. This often results in an otherwise reproducible build where the only difference is the platformBuildVersionName attribute.

The platform is part of the Android SDK that represents the standard library that is installed on the phone. They have two parts to their version: “version code”, which is an integer that represents the SDK release, and the “revision”, which represents bugfix versions to each platform. These versions can be seen in the included build.prop file. Each revision has a different number in Gradle has no way to specify the revision in compileSdkVersion or targetSdkVersion. Only one platform-23 can be installed at a time, unlike build-tools, where every release can be installed in parallel.

Here are two examples where all the differences are suspected to come from different revisions of the platform:


PNG Crush/Crunch

A standard part of the Android build process is to run some kind of PNG optimization tool, like aapt singleCrunch, pngcrush, zopflipng or optipng. These do not provide deterministic output, it is still an open question as to why. Since PNGs are normally committed to the source repo, a workaround to this problem is to run the tool of your choice on the PNG files, then commit those changes to the source repo (e.g. git). Then, disable the default PNG optimization process by adding this to build.gradle:

android {
    aaptOptions {
        cruncherEnabled = false

Note that tools such as svgo can do similar optimization to SVG files.

PNGs generated from vector drawables

Android Gradle plugin generates PNG resources from vector drawables for old Android versions. Unfortunately, the generated PNG files are not reproducible.

You can disable generating the PNGs by adding this to build.gradle:

android {
    defaultConfig {
        vectorDrawables.generatedDensities = []

R8 Optimizer

It appears that some R8 optimizations are non-deterministic, producing different bytecode on different build runs.

For instance, R8 tries to optimize ServiceLoader usage making a static list of all services in the code. The order of this list may be different (or even incomplete) on each build run. The only way to avoid this behavior is disabling such optimizations declaring optimized classes in

-keep class kotlinx.coroutines.CoroutineExceptionHandler
-keep class kotlinx.coroutines.internal.MainDispatcherFactory

Be careful with R8. Always test your builds multiple times and disable optimizations which produce non-deterministic output.

Resource Shrinker

It’s possible to reduce the APK file size by removing unused resources from the package. This is useful when a project depends on some bloated libraries such as AppCompat, especially when R8/ProGuard code shrinking is used.

However, it might be possible that resource shrinker will increase the APK size on different platforms, especially if there are not many resources to shrink, in which case the original APK will be used instead of the shrunk one (non-deterministic behavior of Gradle plugin). Avoid using resource shrinker unless it decreases the APK file size significantly.

ZIP metadata

APKs use the ZIP file format, which was originally designed around the MSDOS FAT filesystem. UNIX file permissions were added as an extension. APKs only need the most basic ZIP format, without any of the extensions. These extensions are often stripped out in the final release signing process. But the APK build process can add them. For example:

--- a2dp.Vol_137.apk
+++ sigcp_a2dp.Vol_137.apk
@@ -1,50 +1,50 @@
--rw----     2.0 fat     8976 bX defN 79-Nov-30 00:00 AndroidManifest.xml
--rw----     2.0 fat  1958312 bX defN 79-Nov-30 00:00 classes.dex
--rw----     1.0 fat    78984 bx stor 79-Nov-30 00:00 resources.arsc
+-rw-rw-rw-  2.3 unx     8976 b- defN 80-000-00 00:00 AndroidManifest.xml
+-rw----     2.4 fat  1958312 b- defN 80-000-00 00:00 classes.dex
+-rw-rw-rw-  2.3 unx    78984 b- stor 80-000-00 00:00 resources.arsc

Mismatched Toolchains

Different toolchains may produce different binaries. A usual case is when more than one JDK version/distribution are used to build the apk. Sometimes even Gradle may mix versions of JDKs to build an apk. To avoid such problems unused JDKs should be removed.

The APK diff will have entries in the classes.dex files like this, e.g. Java 17 vs Java 11:

-    .annotation system Ldalvik/annotation/Signature;
-        value = {
-            "()V"
-        }
-    .end annotation

Language-specific instructions

Native libraries may be built with various tools and languages. Though they suffer from similar reproducible build issues, the methods for fixing them are different. Some known solutions are listed below:


LOCAL_LDFLAGS += -Wl,<linker args> can be added to files or to build.gradle/build.gradle.kts:

android {
    defaultConfig {
        externalNativeBuild {
            ndkBuild {
                arguments "LOCAL_LDFLAGS += -Wl,<linker args>"

For CMake versions since 3.13, add_link_options(LINKER:<linker args>) can be added to CMakeLists.txt globally. For CMake versions before 3.13, target_link_libraries(<target> LINKER:<linker args>) can be used instead for every target. It can also be set in Gradle files:

android {
    defaultConfig {
        externalNativeBuild.cmake {
          cFlags "-DCMAKE_SHARED_LINKER_FLAGS=-Wl,<linker args>"

-ffile-prefix-map can be used to remove embedded build path.


Linker arguments can be added to CGO_LDFLAGS. Some other useful arguments that can be passed to go build are -ldflags="-buildid=", -trimpath (to avoid embedded build paths) and -buildvcs=false.


Compiler and linker arguments can be added to Cargo build.rustflags and rustc Codegen Options. Linker arguments can be added with -C link-args=-Wl,<linker args>; --remap-path-prefix=<old>=<new> can be added to strip build paths.

The Rust toolchain should be pinned to the same version as upstream. This can be done when installing rustup with -y --default-toolchain <version>.

Library-specific instructions

Some libraries generate non-deterministic code due to timestamps, unsorted iterations etc. Some known fixes are documented below:

AboutLibraries Gradle plugin

You can prevent this plugin (com.mikepenz.aboutlibraries.plugin) from adding a timestamp to the JSON file it generates by adding this to build.gradle:

aboutLibraries {
    // Remove the "generated" timestamp to allow for reproducible builds
    excludeFields = ["generated"]

For build.gradle.kts, add this instead:

aboutLibraries {
    // Remove the "generated" timestamp to allow for reproducible builds
    excludeFields = arrayOf("generated")

It generates non-deterministic code which can be sorted after the classes are generated. The detailed instructions can be found in Eternity’s source code.

migration to reproducible builds


  • jar sort order for APKs
  • aapt versions produce different results (XML and res/ subfolder names)