Signing Process

Cryptographic signatures using public/private key parts are central to how F-Droid provides secure app distribution. Signing keys are required to make your own releases with the F-Droid tools. Consider the location, security and backup status of your key files carefully. The keys need to remain secure for the entire lifetime of an F-Droid repo, or an Android app. The signing key is central the identity of an Android app and an F-Droid repo, so those keys must be kept safe, secure and well backed up! Also, take note that Google’s directions for securing these private keys provides only the minimal steps to take to safeguard the keys.

There are two kinds of signing involved in running a repository:

  • the signing of the repo index itself
  • the standard Android APK signing process

Repo Index Signing

When setting up the repository, one of the first steps should be to generate a signing key for the repository index. This will also create a keystore, which is the file that holds the signing keys.

fdroid init will automatically create a new signing key for an F-Droid repo. It is possible to manually create keys just like creating Android signing keys, with a command like:

keytool -genkey -v -keystore my.keystore -alias repokey \
  -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000

In the above, replace my.keystore with the name of the keystore file to be created, and ‘repokey’ with a name to identify the repo index key by. You’ll be asked for a password for the keystore, AND a password for the key. They shouldn’t be the same. In between, you’ll be asked for some identifying details which will go in the certificate.

The two passwords entered go into config.yml, as keystorepass and keypass respectively. The path to the keystore file is set in keystore, and the alias you chose for the key also go into that file is called repo_keyalias.

APK Signing

The F-Droid tools can automatic generate and manage APK signing keys for each app that it maintains. With the repo index signing configured, all that remains to be done for package signing to work is to set the keydname field in config.yml to contain the same identifying details you entered before. A new key will be generated using these details, for each application that is built. If a specific key is required for a particular application, this system can be overridden using the keyaliases config settings.

To set up fdroid publish, do these steps on the same machine where you copy APKs to and run fdroid update. First, set keydname in config.yml, it should be something like this:

keydname = ", O=Example Ltd, C=UK"

Create a dir called unsigned/ next to the metadata/ and repo/ dirs, and run these commands to move the APK into place with a new name based on Application ID and Version Code:

$ cd /path/to/repobasedir
$ touch metadata/
$ mkdir unsigned
$ cp /path/to/app-release-unsigned.apk unsigned/com.example.app_1234.apk
$ fdroid publish --verbose
$ fdroid update --verbose
$ fdroid server update --verbose

Package Signing

All packages built and/or distributed using F-Droid tools can also be signed by PGP using GnuPG, anything from APKs to media files will be signed. This process is run with fdroid gpgsign. Add gpghome and gpgkey to your config.yml to configure it, there is more information in examples/config.yml.

Hardware Security Modules

Hardware Security Modules (HSMs) are specially designed pieces of hardware for securely storing and using cryptographic keys. They provide write-only storage, so that a private key can only be written to the HSM and never read off of it. fdroidserver has support for using HSMs for repo signing keys.

For information on how to configure an F-Droid repo to use an HSM, see the “smartcard” sections of examples/config.yml, specifically keystore and smartcardoptions. Most likely, OpenSC will need to be set up as a PKCS11 provider for Java. hsmwiz is a simpler way to work with smart card HSMs like the Nitrokey HSM. Both OpenSC and hsmwiz are available in Debian.

For more in-depth information, see: